A fundamental question is: Why do these neural tissues GP on the heart become hyperactive in some of the population, in particular, disproportionately in persons from 60—80 years old? An early report by Kaijser et al. This would help to explain the increased incidence of AF in the elderly population compared to younger cohorts [90,91]. Now, although parasympathetic stimulation has been proposed as a generic approach to anti-aging, it must be pointed out that for various indications, e.
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Understanding physiologic mechanisms underlying various clinical symptomatology is important, and requires extensive ongoing research . Indeed, the intentionality of magnetic resonance therapy is to intervene in such a manner so as to assist the body to heal itself subsequent to the intervention.
The critical study described a noninvasive therapy to treat AF in a canine model of AF. When an extremely low-level electromagnetic field 0. Vasostatin-1 was chosen as the target molecule for anti-arrhythmogenic studies for its inhibitory effects on the cardiac autonomic nervous system CANS , particularly the adrenergic component.
Vasostatin-1 is a recently recognized cardio regulatory peptide with diverse actions, including anti-adrenergic and anti-inflammatory effects. It was shown that vasostatin-1 injection into the major atrial ganglionated plexi GP suppressed atrial fibrillation AF inducibility and inhibited the activity of the intrinsic CANS. Studies were done on adult dogs.
Therefore, we consider:. The use of low-level PicoTesla electromagnetic fields to suppress atrial fibrillation was studied by Yu et al. Atrial fibrillation, AF was induced by rapid atrial pacing RAP or programmed atrial extra stimulation. At the baseline and at the end of each hour of RAP during sinus rhythm, programed atrial stimulation yielded the effective refractory period ERP as well as the width of the window of vulnerability WOV. WOV was a measure of AF inducibility. Microelectrodes were inserted into the anterior right ganglionated plexi ARGP and recorded neural firing.
Helmholtz coils were utilized, powered by an HP generator that produced the PTEMF signal parameters shown in the aforementioned calculation, i. The study sample was divided into two groups.
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A new non-invasive holistic paradigm has been proposed for ameliorating the aging process and the effects therefrom. The slowing of our biological clocks through regulation of telomere length may be possible, utilizing extrinsically sourced non-ionizing, non-significant risk magnetic fields . Telomeres shorten with each cell division, due to incomplete lagging strand synthesis. There are many published correlative studies demonstrating a connection between telomere length and aging, with evidence of an inherited component .
While end-processing events are less well understood, as is oxidative damage, we may presuppose that quantum state entropic changes are of relevance. Interatomic communications via electromagnetic forces are at the root of all signal transductive coupling mechanisms. When the binding protein for telomeres undergoes conformational changes in concert with incomplete lagging strand DNA synthesis mechanical error , electromagnetic signals are sent to the rest of the DNA, and may inhibit normal genetic information transfer mechanisms.
Inhibition or up-regulation of telomerase may be provided by inducing enhanced coherent vibrational states via phonons. However, the resultant may be dependent upon the electrophysiological quantum environment of affected cells. Affectation of telomeres or telomerase then may be dependent upon changes already in occurrence, such as chromatin instability, DNA damage, and other stress signals such as over-expression of oncogenes. We note that various biological structures, e.
Whereas, these structures may form an uninterrupted reticulum that may act as quasi-crystalline piezoelectric networks, capable of converting electromagnetic oscillations to mechanical vibrations or vice-versa. Indeed, a diversity of studies has indicated that telomeric magnetic domains may prove susceptible to magnetic resonance energies in the physiologic Pico Tesla range . It has also been demonstrated that Pico Tesla range magnetic fields can modulate autonomic nervous system tonicity by affecting vagal and sympathetic innervation [1,9,10,56,88].
Environmental stressors stimulate HPA-axis production of cortisol, whose primary action is to stimulate gluconeogenesis for production of heat energy to areas that need it most, e. The heat energy exigencies demanded by environmental stressors may imbue a progressive slow burn in small volumes of tissues over time; thus increasing quantum entropic states, desiccation of microstructures, and microscopic scarring.
In addition, excessive heat energies will produce disruption of cooperative coherent interatomic communications.
The Nobel Prizes in Physics
Pico Tesla range magnetic fields have been shown to renormalize intrinsic electromagnetic profiles of tissues, and to restore desired vagal tonicity, to diminish heat energy exigencies associated with enhanced sympathetic innervation. He reasoned that the neutron, being uncharged, could penetrate the nucleus easily and could trigger nuclear reactions. In this vein he discovered new radioactive isotopes.
Although Fermi thought that he produced transuranic elements with uranium, Noddack proposed that Fermi had actually split the nucleus in two much lighter elements. The average binding energy of a nucleon in the uranium nucleus is 7. How could a single low-energy neutron possibly split the uranium nucleus?
Mark I. DYKMAN
It was Meitner and Frisch who worked out a rough picture of how the uranium nucleus, upon absorbing a neutron, distorts and splits into two roughly equal parts. Indeed, they calculated that the fission of uranium should be a highly exoergic reaction in which about MeV of energy are released, about ten times more energy than that of any previously known nuclear reaction . The Bohr-Wheeler theory of nuclear fission says that the nucleus behaves like an incompressible drop of liquid. Nucleons are packed closely together, held by strong forces which cause the nucleus to assume a roughly spherical shape, just as a drop of liquid assumes a spherical shape to minimize surface tension.
The nuclear forces play the role of surface tension and bring the nucleus into minimum-energy spherical shape.
Now, before we continue our story we should look at the changing shape of a cell dividing — that is the deformation of a roughly spherical shape to an ellipsoidal shape. After prophase and the migration of centrioles, the cell moves to metaphase, wherein chromatids appear after the process of condensation. The double nature of mitotic chromosomes becomes evident at metaphase, by which stage-two chromatids can be distinguished. This arrangement is assumed as a result of the development of a second set of microtubules. Until anaphase, the two chromatids of a mitotic chromosome are joined at the centromere, where a kinetochore is present on each chromatid.
The centromere region appears in the LM as a constriction. Now, returning to our story of fission, we note that when the nucleus absorbs a neutron, it is deformed into an ellipsoidal shape much as the mitotic cell.
Yet the nuclear surface tension tends to restore the nucleus back to a spherical shape, and oscillations set in. Returning to our dividing cell, we see in telophase the constriction of the middle of the cell becomes a cleavage furrow that deepens and eventually pinches the cell into two. Of course in nuclear fission, a separation of charge is created, and the positive charges in the two halves of the dumbbell repel each other. If the shape of the nucleus is too deformed, the nuclear force will not be strong enough to overcome this repulsion keeping in mind that the nuclear force has a much shorter range than the electrostatic force , and the nucleus will split into two roughly equal parts.
With the Bohr-Wheeler theory it was possible to estimate the activation energy needed to deform a nucleus so that is splits. Noting that nuclei of intermediate size have the highest bonding energies per nucleon and therefore are more stable than lighter and heavier nuclei, we must question whether the fission process may occur in biological systems enhanced by predisposition of proto-oncogenes and biologically asymmetrical structures and invasion of foreign bodies; e.
If a heavy nucleus is split into two smaller ones, the greater binding energy of the latter means that energy will be liberated. This may be analogous to the growth process in biological systems wherein as cells divide, more energy is liberated. Certainly youth maintains more energy than is expressed by mature organisms. Since the products of the fission include several neutrons as well as two daughter nuclei, a chain reaction can be established in an assembly of a suitable fissionable isotope.
If it is uncontrolled, as in cancer, the result is an atomic bomb. If it is controlled so that the rate at which fission events occur is constant, the result is a nuclear reactor that can serve as an energy source for generating electricity; the basis of life and the explanatory mechanism of B. The activation energy for fission can generally be supplied in two ways: 1 by energy released in the neutron reaction; and 2 by the kinetic energy brought in by the captured neutron. However, it is known that there is also a smaller probability that a nucleus will accidentally absorb sufficient energy through collisions or other random processes and spontaneously split without being hit by a neutron.
Although the likelihood of spontaneous fission in heavy nuclei is generally rather small, it nevertheless provides an explanation for spontaneous fission in a cell leading to a chain reaction — cancer [98,]. In the cyclotron, when a charged particle is introduced into the center, it is accelerated by an electric field across a gap and deflected onto a circular path by a uniform magnetic field.
With each crossing of the gap, the particle gains energy and the circles grow wider.