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Multiple sclerosis: the history of a disease. New York: Demos Medical; Chapter 4: The steps toward a discovery: the early medical reports; p. Chapter 5: The building blocks of discovery; p. Chapter 6: The Contribuition of J. Charcot — ; p. Finger S. Origins of Neuroscience : a history of explorations into brain function. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Medicine an illustrated history.

New York: Harry N.

Volume 77 Issue 6 | Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology | Oxford Academic

Bogousslavsky J. Following Charcot: a forgotten history of neurology and psychiatry. Basel: Karger; Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience; Vol. Wetsman N. Inflammatory illness: why the next wave of antidepressants may target the immune system. Nat Med. Vogel, G. Malaria as Lifesaving Therapy. The affective symptomatology of dissaminated sclerosis: a study of cases.

J Neurol Psychopathol. Smith RS. The macrophage theory of depression. Med Hypotheses. Kwidzinski E, Bechmann I. IDO expression in the brain: a double-edged sword. J Mol Med Berl. Neuropsychiatric syndromes of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Furthermore, DCs differentiated in the presence of progesterone did not stimulate allogeneic mononuclear cells in PB. Taken together, these results indicate that progesterone diminishes the maturation of DCs, leading to decreased immune responses against invading pathogens.

Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse. Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution 0. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified.

The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus equi subsp. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome.

One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops.

Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain

Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Hyperferritinemia is associated with short survival time in dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

In the present study, we examined the relationship between serum ferritin concentration before treatment and survival time in dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Eighteen dogs with multicentric lymphoma were enrolled in the study. This finding suggests that the initial high level of serum ferritin indicates short survival time in dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Large-scale research is necessary to confirm this finding. Plasma E 2 concentration increased sharply a few days prepartum and decreased quickly after parturition. In terms of bone resorption markers, the plasma level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b TRAP5b rose significantly, commencing 1 week prepartum, and was maintained at this level to a few days postpartum. The plasma concentration of carboxyterminal collagen cross-links of type-I collagen CTx increased significantly after parturition.

These observations suggest that osteoclast-mediated bone resorption was activated after parturition when plasma E 2 concentrations decreased.


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Pathological findings of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome HBS in six dairy cattle cases. Six adult dairy cows clinically diagnosed as hemorrhagic bowel syndrome HBS were the subjects of this study. The involved intestinal lesions were fixed in formalin and examined macroscopically and histopathologically.

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Pathological examinations revealed large intramural hematomas with necrotic foci, resulting in luminal obstruction. The mucosal layer in the lesions was detached from the intestinal wall, and there were no hemorrhagic changes in the lumen. The intramural hematomas were sometimes covered with histologically intact mucosal layer. Gram-positive and anti- Clostridium antibody-positive short bacilli were found in hemorrhagic necrotic areas. However, the exact relationship between Clostridium spp. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis.

Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus BLV proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis EBL without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. These results suggest that the detection of monoclonal integration of BLV provirus into the host genome may serve as a marker of monoclonal proliferation and malignancy in difficult to diagnose EBL cattle.

The number of pups was adjusted to 6 per dam on the day of delivery, and the number of surviving pups and their total weight litter weight were scored at 12 days after birth. Nurturing ability was evaluated by litter weight, and tendency to lose pups was evaluated by scoring whether or not the mothers lost their pups.

For litter weight, we identified one significant QTL on chromosome 4 and three suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 7, 9 and For the tendency to lose pups, we identified three suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 4, 9 and These results supported our hypothesis that the low survival rate phenotype was attributable, at least in part, to a phenotype whereby mothers display inferior nurturing ability and a tendency to lose pups. Thus, it suggests that these two traits share genetic basis.

Effect of methotrexate on cerebellar development in infant rats. Both the length and width of the vermis decreased in the methotrexate-treated group instead of the control from 4 day after treatment DAT onward. A significant reduction in the width of the external granular layer was detected on 2 and 3 DAT in the methotrexate group.

By 4 DAT, the width of the external granular layer of the methotrexate group was indistinguishable from the control, and by 8 DAT, it was greater than that of the control. The molecular layer of methotrexate group on 8 and 15 DAT was thinner than that of the control. On 1 DAT, in the methotrexate group, there were many TUNEL and cleaved caspasepositive granular cells throughout the external granular layer, and they decreased time-dependently.

On 1 DAT, in the methotrexate group, phospho-histone H3-positive cells in the external granular layer were fewer than in the control and tended to increase on 2—4 DAT. These results suggested that methotrexate exposure on postnatal day 6 induces a delay, slowing in the migration of external granular cells to the inner granular layer, attributed to decrease or inhibition in the production of external granular cells that had arisen from apoptosis and the decrease in cell proliferative activity, resulting in cerebellar hypoplasia.

Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris.


  • Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain.
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A year-old female Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed.

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Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger. Plasma amino acid profiles at various reproductive stages in female rats. We measured the plasma levels of amino acids at various reproductive stages in female rats, including the estrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation, and compared the resulting amino acid profiles using two- or three-dimensional figures.

Pneumonia with Pleural Effusions. Jitpimolmard S, Vejjajiva A. Chotmongkol V, Jitpimolmard S. Dasananjali T. Efficacy and Acceptability of Perinodopril in Essential Hypertension. Leelarasamee A, TianGrim S. Laupattarakasem W, Mahaisavariya B. Deerojanawong J, Prapphal N. Tori CD, Siripanich R. Wongsa P.