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The Spirituality of Supervision, Michael Carroll. Part 2: Supervision in Clinical Contexts. What is in the Kit Bag? Supervision in Primary Care, Jane Rosoman, psychiatric social worker and counsellor in primary care settings. Part 3: Issues in Integrative Supervision.

Which Subpersonality is Supervising Today? Du kanske gillar. Lifespan David Sinclair Inbunden. Permanent Record Edward Snowden Inbunden. Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. As new techniques and approaches to supervision attract interest within therapy-related professions, the contributors to this informative book consider the nature of a supervision and examine the ways in which it can be further defined and developed. Drawing together practical and theoretical perspectives, Integrative Approaches to Supervision examines the contribution that supervision can make within both organisational and individual settings.

The book covers frameworks and models for supervision, supervision in clinical practice and issues within integrative supervision. Topics include: different models of the supervision practice; anti-oppressive practice; spirituality and supervision; counselling supervision in health care; supervision of organisations; self-protection for supervisors from complaints and litigation. Wide in scope but rich in detail, this book is essential reading for psychotherapists, counsellors, consultants and students involved in the supervision process. Passar bra ihop. During stressful periods supervisors, in particular perhaps when they are starting out, may suffer from the same doubts, anxieties and insecurities manifested by their supervisees.

A sound core model of supervision can provide a lifebelt that keeps the supervisor afloat and prevents him or her being dragged under by the difficulties and dilemmas brought by supervisees. The same may well be true for supervisors. When a supervision model is well articulated and integrated it encourages the supervisor to work in a thoughtful and supervisee-responsive manner. Without the security of a sound model to frame and guide the process the supervisor is in some danger of going for the quick fix approach. This in turn may easily slide into advice giving or teaching in which the supervisor becomes a substitute counsellor and disenfranchises their supervisees of their own autonomous decisions.

Providing techniques and intervention strategies. While he is writing here about counselling trainees his words apply equally to those learning about how to be supervisors.


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As trainees move from being novice supervisees to seasoned practitioners the scaffolding of the core model will be less relied upon and may to a large degree be dismantled. Rather than being at the forefront of the work the model will certainly recede into the background where it will carry the function of providing a loose organising framework rather than a set procedure to be slavishly adhered to at all times. If these can be said to be some of the advantages of a core supervision model, what about disadvantages and drawbacks? The main disadvantage, as we see it, of developing strict allegiance to a core supervision model is that it can become a strait jacket for practitioners that forces them into certain fixed postures and poses that can feel unnatural or constricting, or which stifle innovation and discovery.

Supervisees, too, can be subjected to interventions prescribed by the model without due consideration being given to individual needs and differences. There is an essential tension for those who educate supervisors. It is how to promote healthy and creative scepticism in their trainees while delivering a model of supervision that promotes sufficient confidence and personal conviction to enable novice supervisors to embark on the daunting journey of accompanying and assisting counsellors who are often in difficulty with their clients.

By their very nature models are formed by establishing boundaries.

Books by Michael Carroll

While a model of supervision, as is argued more fully later in this chapter, can be a container for creativity and chaos, it may also exclude or eliminate that which it is not designed to contain. Paradoxically, the supervisor who uses a model effectively needs to have the ability and willingness to abandon the model when the supervision work requires an unusual or unfamiliar response. For instance, one stage of the cyclical model, as we shall see, is concerned with encouraging the supervisee to prepare carefully for supervision by bringing a focus for the work. Yet on occasion it may be crucial that the supervisee who is struggling to find a focus is encouraged to bring that struggle in order to work on it with their supervisor.

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The area of occlusion may then become the focus of the supervision. This title results from our wish to bring together the cyclical model and the work we have been doing since that model was first published in Yet at other times some aspect of themselves can cause them to stumble in this relationship, losing sight of their role as a practitioner and undermining the therapeutic endeavour. This is a tension that all therapeutic practitioners face — the tension between operating within the appropriate parameters of the role on the one hand and being authentic in their relationship with their clients on the other.

This is not a static tension, but one that shifts and changes as the practitioner shifts and moves in their development. In this context we agree with Wilkins that personal and professional development cannot be separated into discrete strands so we have to think about development as an inclusive process. We are therefore encompassing these ideas while exploring our model as an example of an integrative approach to supervision Wosket We do this through the notion of our model as a container, with chaos and creativity as aspects of what it tries to contain.

Table 1. The authors suggest that this typically lasts from initial training through to a few years post qualification. This takes the next 30 years or more! This is both the personal shadow, and also the role shadow that is developed as the practitioner learns the role of counsellor or therapist. One example of my personal shadow is a tendency to feel undue guilt.

It is of my shadow in that although I know of it and am learning more about this aspect of myself nevertheless on occasions it does influence my thoughts, feelings and actions without my realising this at the time. Not surprisingly I have to attend to this in my own supervision because it can quite easily get tangled up with my work as a counsellor, and as a supervisor. Examples of my role shadow include my bluntness, sense of the ridiculous, capacity for making mischief and impatience.

These are all attributes that I am generally willing to express in my personal relationships, but tend to suppress when I am working, particularly with clients. I have noticed that as I have gained in experience so it has become more frequent that I express these aspects of myself in relationships with clients, but only when a good level of trust and intimacy has developed between us. I am rather intrigued by this notion of role shadow and am inclined to think that its development is an unavoidable process for all but those who are highly self-aware. Not least because the limitations imposed by the learnt role act as one of the containers or safety devices for personal shadow material.

Page a Building on the work of the two Roberts, Johnson and Bly , a six-stage model for our relationship with our shadow has been proposed. This moves from formation through denial, recognition, confrontation, and incorporation to a point when it becomes possible to be guided by our shadow Page a. At any one time each of us is at various points along this path with different aspects of ourselves. By now the potential for chaos is hopefully becoming apparent. In the supervision session we have counsellors who are involved in a complex developmental process that includes their personal life journey, their professional role and the interaction between the two.

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They are trying, presumably with integrity and commitment, to work with clients in an effectively therapeutic manner. The supervisor is there to attend to the work with the client in parallel with endeavouring to facilitate the development of their supervisee. In addition the supervisor also has his or her own unaware or unconscious dynamics at work, stemming from their unresolved personal shadow and the role shadow formed when becoming a supervisor.

To seek out examples of our own supervisor role shadow we might usefully look at our beliefs about being a good supervisor and the implicit prohibitions they contain. This is rooted in a painful experience one of us [Steve] had with a supervisor. This supervisor, I felt, was at times unduly harsh in his criticism and I would sometimes leave supervision feeling thoroughly despondent about my practice. In retrospect, I believe that as a result of this experience I have tended to deny my own negative critic when acting as a supervisor. As a result this has become part of my supervisor role shadow which I had to confront when faced with a supervisee some aspects of whose practice were, in my view, appalling.

I eventually had to tell them that I seriously doubted their suitability for the role, asked them to cease practising and brought our supervisory relationship to an end. This caused me considerable anguish at the time. This, then, is one way of describing the potential chaos within the supervision session.

Fortunately this is not the whole picture by any means, for alongside, and indeed one might argue from within, the chaos is the potential for creativity. When we talk of creativity in the context of supervision we are thinking of the stray feeling, insight or image that offers a way forward or a new perspective, or a shift of feeling that indicates some movement in the emotional field. It is generally unexpected when it does arise; it cannot be sought but has simply to be allowed to happen and noticed as it does. This association between chaos and creativity is not limited to supervision: there are many instances across the range of human experience where chaos and destructiveness are witnessed hand-in-hand with creativity and healing.

As supervisors, we need to be willing to head towards the chaos, to deliberately seek it out, believing that it is in so doing that we open up the opportunity for creativity to emerge. I [Steve] have started to learn to sail over recent months. One of the greatest surprises has been discovering that it is possible to go fast by heading toward the wind!

Supervision Models

Not directly into it but about 15 or 20 degrees either side. In comparison sailing with the wind behind you is slower and can become a little tedious — unless the wind is really blowing or you have a spinnaker of course! I think that as supervisors we do well to head as close to the wind as possible, tacking as and when necessary. It is here, in the centre of the work, that there is the greatest opportunity for chaos and creativity to co-exist. It is here that, as the supervisor, we can relax and allow ourselves not to know what is taking place, not know where the dialogue is taking us, to follow our instincts, intuitions, interests and to encourage the supervisee to do the same.

The slightly mysterious notion of alchemy is introduced because there is, at times, a mysterious element to what takes place here.

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One of the counsellors in the group presented their work with a particular client.