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The low process rates resulting from the limited ion flux in RIE often mandate multiwafer or batch processing, with a consequent loss of wafer-to-wafer reproducibility. Higher ion and neutral fluxes are generally required for single-wafer processing in a clustered tool environment, in which a single wafer is moved by a robot through a series of process chambers.
The limitations of parallel-plate RIE and its magnetically enhanced variants have led to the development of a new generation of low-pressure, high-density plasma sources. In addition to high-density and low-pressure, a common feature is that the rf or microwave power is coupled to the plasma across a dielectric window, rather than by direct connection to an electrode in the plasma as in parallelplate RIE.
This noncapacitive electrode power transfer is the key to achieving low voltages across all plasma sheaths at the electrode and wall surfaces. The dc voltages, and hence the ion-acceleration energies, are then typically V at all surfaces. The electrode on which the substrate is placed can be independently. Recent ultra-large-scale integration ULSI production processes have involved the fabrication of subnm patterns on Si wafers.
High-density plasma sources, such as inductively coupled plasma ICP and electron-cyclotron-resonance ECR plasma, are key technologies for developing precise etching processes. However, these technologies create several types of radiation damage caused by the charge build-up of positive ions and electrons  or radiation from ultraviolet UV , vacuum ultraviolet VUV , and x-ray photons  during etching. Voltages generated by the charge build-up distort ion trajectories and cause thin gate oxide films to break, etching to stop, and the etching rate to depend on patterns.
Additionally, high-density crystal defects are generated by UV or VUV photons radiating from the plasma to the etching surface. These serious problems must be overcome in the fabrication of future nanoscale devices as they strongly degrade the electrical characteristics of the devices and increase critical dimension losses in the etching processes.
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In short, subnm devices require defect-free and charge-free atomic layer etching processes. We propose a concept of on-wafer monitoring, which measures the kinds and energies of active species such as ions, neutrals, radicals, and photons. We fabricated various sensors using semiconductor microfabrication techniques to solve these problems.
We developed an onwafer UV sensor to measure UV irradiation from plasma, an on-wafer charge-up sensor to measure charge-up potential across high-aspect-ratio structures under plasma irradiation, and an on-wafer sheath shape sensor to measure sheath potential and thickness. Active species and their spatial distribution could be easily monitored in situ with these sensors. We could identify the surface reactions from the measured data. We could also predict process damage distributions and monitor feature profile evolution by combining on-wafer monitoring and computer simulations.
References 1. Nozawa, T.
NDL India: Feature Profile Evolution in Plasma Processing Using On-wafer Monitoring System
Kinoshita, Jpn. Kinoshita, M. Hane, J. McVittee, J. B14, H. Ootera, Jpn. Ohtake, S. Okamaoto, T. Ide, A.
Sasaki, K. Azuma, Y. Nakata, Jpn. Yonekura, K. Goto, M. Mastuura, N.
Fujiwara, K. Tsujimoto, Jpn. Cheung, C. Carrere, J. Oberlin, M. Dao, W. Joshi, J. McVittee, K. Cismura, J. Shohet, J. Woodworth, M. Blain, R. Jarecki, T. Hamilton, B. Aragon, J. A 17, Abstract UV radiation during plasma processing affects the surface of materials. Nevertheless, the interaction of UV photons with surface is not clearly understood because of the difficulty in monitoring photons during plasma processing.
For this purpose, we have previously proposed an on-wafer monitoring technique for UV photons. For this study, using the combination of this on-wafer monitoring technique and a neural network, we established a relationship between the data obtained from the on-wafer monitoring technique and UV spectra. Also, we obtained absolute intensities of UV radiation by calibrating arbitrary units of UV intensity with a nm excimer lamp. As a result, UV spectra and their absolute intensities could be predicted with the on-wafer monitoring.