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However, because accidents affect worldwide public acceptance of this industry, questions have been raised about the risk of economic and political pressures weakening the safety of the plants Finon, ; Budnitz, The growth in electricity storage for renewables has been around grid flexibility resources GFR that would enable several places to source more than half their power from non-hydro renewables Komarnicki, Battery storage has been the main growth feature in energy storage since AR5 Breyer et al.
This appears to the result of significant cost reductions due to mass production for electric vehicles EVs Nykvist and Nilsson, ; Dhar et al.
Although costs and technical maturity look increasingly positive, the feasibility of battery storage is challenged by concerns over the availability of resources and the environmental impacts of its production Peters et al. Emerging battery technologies may provide greater efficiency and recharge rates Belmonte et al.
Research and demonstration of energy storage in the form of thermal and chemical systems continues, but large-scale commercial systems are rare Pardo et al. Renewably derived synthetic liquid like methanol and ammonia and gas like methane and hydrogen are increasingly being seen as a feasible storage options for renewable energy producing fuel for use in industry during times when solar and wind are abundant Bruce et al.
The use of electric vehicles as a form of storage has been modelled and evaluated as an opportunity, and demonstrations are emerging Dhar et al. Climate change has started to disrupt electricity generation and, if climate change adaptation options are not considered, it is predicted that these disruptions will be lengthier and more frequent Jahandideh-Tehrani et al. Adaptation would both secure vulnerable infrastructure and ensure the necessary generation capacity Minville et al.
The literature shows high agreement that climate change impacts need to be planned for in the design of any kind of infrastructure, especially in the energy sector Nierop, , including interdependencies with other sectors that require electricity to function, including water, data, telecommunications and transport Fryer, Assessments of energy infrastructure adaptation, while limited, emphasize the need for redundancy Liu et al. Hybrid renewables-based power systems with non-hydro capacity, such as with high-penetration wind generation, could provide the required system flexibility Canales et al.
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Overall, there is high agreement that hybrid systems, taking advantage of an array of sources and time of use strategies, can help make electricity generation more resilient Parkinson and Djilali, , given that energy security standards are in place Almeida Prado et al. Interactions between water and energy are complex IEA, g Water scarcity patterns and electricity disruptions will differ across regions.
There is high agreement that mitigation and adaptation options for thermal electricity generation if that remains fitted with CCS need to consider increasing water shortages, taking into account other factors such as ambient water resources and demand changes in irrigation water Hayashi et al. Increasing the efficiency of power plants can reduce emissions and water needs Eisenack and Stecker, ; van Vliet et al. The technological, economic, social and institutional feasibility of efficiency improvements is high, but insufficient to limit temperature rise to 1.
In addition, a number of options for water cooling management systems have been proposed, such as hydraulic measures Eisenack and Stecker, and alternative cooling technologies Chandel et al.
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There is high agreement on the technological and economic feasibility of these technologies, as their absence can severely impact the functioning of the power plant as well as safety and security standards. This section focuses on CCS in the fossil-fuelled power sector; Section 4.
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Section 2. Such modelling suggests that CCS in the power sector can contribute to cost-effective achievement of emission reduction requirements for limiting warming to 1. CCS may also offer employment and political advantages for fossil fuel-dependent economies Kern et al. Since , two CCS projects in the power sector capture 2.
The technological maturity of CO 2 capture options in the power sectors has improved considerably Abanades et al. Storage capacity estimates vary greatly, but Section 2. Scott et al. Regional availability of this may not be sufficient, and it requires efforts to have this storage and the corresponding infrastructure available at the necessary rates and times de Coninck and Benson, A paper reviewing 42 studies on public perception of CCS Seigo et al.
The technology itself mattered less than the social context of the project. Though insights on communication of CCS projects to the general public and inhabitants of the area around the CO 2 storage sites have been documented over the years, project stakeholders are not consistently implementing these lessons, although some projects have observed good practices Ashworth et al.
CCS in the power sector is hardly being realized at scale, mainly because the incremental costs of capture, and the development of transport and storage infrastructures are not sufficiently compensated by market or government incentives IEA, c EOR is a technique that uses CO 2 to mobilize more oil out of depleting oil fields, leading to additional CO 2 emissions by combusting the additionally recovered oil Cooney et al.
This section assesses the feasibility of mitigation and adaptation options related to land use and ecosystems. Land transitions are grouped around agriculture and food, ecosystems and forests, and coastal systems. Some high-latitude regions may benefit from the combined effects of elevated CO 2 and temperature because their average temperatures are below optimal temperature for crops. In both cases there are consequences for food production and quality Cross-Chapter Box 6 in Chapter 3 on Food Security , conservation agriculture, irrigation, food wastage, bioenergy and the use of novel technologies.
Food production and quality. Increased temperatures, including 1. There is medium agreement that elevated CO 2 concentrations can change food composition, with implications for nutritional security Taub et al.
These production losses could be lowered if adaptation measures are taken Challinor et al. Adaptation options can help ensure access to sufficient, quality food. Such options include conservation agriculture, improved livestock management, increasing irrigation efficiency, agroforestry and management of food loss and waste. Complementary adaptation and mitigation options, for example, the use of climate services Section 4. Conservation agriculture CA is a soil management approach that reduces the disruption of soil structure and biotic processes by minimising tillage.
A recent meta-analysis showed that no-till practices work well in water-limited agroecosystems when implemented jointly with residue retention and crop rotation, but when used independently, may decrease yields in other situations Pittelkow et al. Additional climate adaptations include adjusting planting times and crop varietal selection and improving irrigation efficiency. CA can also help build adaptive capacity medium evidence, medium agreement H.
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CA practices can also raise soil carbon and therefore remove CO 2 from the atmosphere Aguilera et al. However, CA adoption can be constrained by inadequate institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms Harvey et al. Sustainable intensification of agriculture consists of agricultural systems with increased production per unit area but with management of the range of potentially adverse impacts on the environment Pretty and Bharucha, Sustainable intensification can increase the efficiency of inputs and enhance health and food security Ramankutty et al.
Livestock management. Livestock are responsible for more GHG emissions than all other food sources. Emissions are caused by feed production, enteric fermentation, animal waste, land-use change and livestock transport and processing. Some estimates indicate that livestock supply chains could account for 7. Cattle beef, milk are responsible for about two-thirds of that total, largely due to methane emissions resulting from rumen fermentation Gerber et al. Despite ongoing gains in livestock productivity and volumes, the increase of animal products in global diets is restricting overall agricultural efficiency gains because of inefficiencies in the conversion of agricultural primary production e.
There is increasing agreement that overall emissions from food systems could be reduced by targeting the demand for meat and other livestock products, particularly where consumption is higher than suggested by human health guidelines. Adjusting diets to meet nutritional targets could bring large co-benefits, through GHG mitigation and improvements in the overall efficiency of food systems Erb et al. How the role of dietary shift could change in 1.
Adaptation of livestock systems can include a suite of strategies such as using different breeds and their wild relatives to develop a genetic pool resilient to climatic shocks and longer-term temperature shifts Thornton and Herrero, , improving fodder and feed management Bell et al. Most interventions that improve the productivity of livestock systems and enhance adaptation to climate changes would also reduce the emissions intensity of food production, with significant co-benefits for rural livelihoods and the security of food supplies Gerber et al.
Whether such reductions in emission intensity result in lower or higher absolute GHG emissions depends on overall demand for livestock products, indicating the relevance of integrating supply-side with demand-side measures within food security objectives Gerber et al. Transitions in livestock production systems e. Overall, there is high agreement that farm strategies that integrate mixed crop—livestock systems can improve farm productivity and have positive sustainability outcomes Havet et al.
Shifting towards mixed crop—livestock systems is estimated to reduce agricultural adaptation costs to 0. Evidence from various regions supports this Thornton and Herrero, , although the feasible scale varies between regions and systems, as well as being moderated by overall demand in specific food products. In Australia, some farmers have successfully shifted to crop—livestock systems where, each year, they allocate land and forage resources in response to climate and price trends Bell et al. However, there can be some unintended negative impacts of such integration, including increased burdens on women, higher requirements of capital, competing uses of crop residues e.
Finally, the feasibility of improving livestock efficiency is dependent on socio-cultural context and acceptability: there remain significant issues around widespread adoption of crossbred animals, especially by smallholders Thornton et al. Irrigation efficiency. While increasing irrigation system efficiency is necessary, there is mixed evidence on how to enact efficiency improvements Fader et al.
Physical and technical strategies include building large-scale reservoirs or dams, renovating or deepening irrigation channels, building on-farm rainwater harvesting structures, lining ponds, channels and tanks to reduce losses through percolation and evaporation, and investing in small infrastructure such as sprinkler or drip irrigation sets Varela-Ortega et al. Each strategy has differing costs and benefits relating to unique biophysical, social, and economic contexts. Also, increasing irrigation efficiency may foster higher dependency on irrigation, resulting in a heightened sensitivity to climate that may be maladaptive in the long term Lindoso et al.
Improvements in irrigation efficiency would need to be supplemented with ancillary activities, such as shifting to crops that require less water and improving soil and moisture conservation Fader et al. Currently, the feasibility of improving irrigation efficiency is constrained by issues of replicability across scale and sustainability over time Burney and Naylor, , institutional barriers and inadequate market linkages Pittock et al.